English name: Hanoi
Coordinates: 0.00000, 21.03330
Hanoi, estimated population 3,500,800 (1997), is the capital of Vietnam. The city is located on the right bank of the Red River. Manufactures include machine tools, plywood, textiles, chemicals, and handicrafts.
Hanoi became the capital of the Chinese rulers of Vietnam in the 7th century. Its Chinese name, Dong Kinh, became Tonkin and was applied by Europeans to the entire region. Hanoi was occupied by the French in 1873 and passed to them ten years later. It became the capital of French Indochina after 1887.
The city was occupied by the Japanese in 1940, and liberated in 1945, when it became the seat of Vietnam's government. From 1946 to 1954, it was the scene of heavy fighting between the French and Viet Minh forces. At that point, the city became the capital of an independent North Vietnam.
During the Vietnam War Hanoi's transportation facilities were disrupted by the bombing of bridges and railways, which were, however, immediately repaired. Following the end of the war Hanoi was established as the capital of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam when North and South Vietnam were united on July 2, 1976.
In the city are the National University of Vietnam (formerly Hanoi University), the National History Museum, the Revolution Museum, and several historic monuments.
See also: the Tower of Hanoi puzzle